What’s important to know and be able to teach a child before kindergarten, sight words for kindergarten

As a rule, the decision that a child will go to kindergarten is not made spontaneously by parents. This becomes known at least in a few months. Therefore, responsible parents have in stock 2-3 months, so as not to rush to prepare the baby to kindergarten.

What's important to know and be able to teach a child before kindergarten, sight words for kindergarten

Of course, kindergarten is not a school, and no special knowledge is required of the child. But parents should take care of making it easier for him or her to have a first experience in the team. To make it easier for the child to adapt, in advance:

Get your child used to the daily routine that is set in the kindergarten of your choice;
give your child basic self-care skills;
teach your child to communicate with other children and carers.
Why regime is so important
Even if a certain regime in your family is not accepted or is not successful, it should be one of the stages in preparing your child for kindergarten.

It is important that your child can fall asleep without his mother, especially during the day. In kindergarten, no one will lull your child. If the child starts to wake up, fall asleep, walk, play and study at a certain time, it will greatly facilitate the period of adaptation to the new conditions. Compliance with the regime will help to correct and biological clock baby, he will be less tired, it will be much easier for him to learn and acquire new knowledge and skills.

Of course, it is better if parents will immediately accustom the child to the daily routine, which is set in the kindergarten, where he will go. Therefore, learn the daily routine in the group and adapt the crumb to it in advance. This will give him or her the first idea of the discipline he or she needs from kindergarten onwards.

It is a good idea for your child to know the words “can’t”, “need” and “can”. This will make it easier for him or her to interact with carers and avoid conflicts with other children. Knowing how to comply with the general requirements will ultimately shorten the period of adaptation, making kindergarten for your child a pleasure rather than a heavy duty or a punishment.

What kind of self-service skills will be required for the kindergarten, first grade sight words

By the age of three, when most of the children are ready to attend kindergarten, parents themselves are trying to ensure that their child has the necessary skills:

to put on and take off their clothes without adult help;
to use cutlery;
wash, comb and brush their own teeth.
From a very early age, children like to be independent. When they start walking, they already try to do without the help of adults, including taking off or wearing clothes, socks and shoes. Encourage such attempts by making it easier for the child to walk, using comfortable clothes and shoes with minimal buttons, zippers, velcro and rubber bands that can be easily removed and put on.

Teach him how to recognize his things and make sure they look neat and clean. First kindergarten sight words for a child. Explain that outerwear should be hung in a special cupboard or on a hanger, and the lower one should be folded neatly on a chair or hung on his back. Even a three-year-old baby can be taught to clean shoes, wipe it with a special rag from dust and dirt. Of course, in most cases, his shoes will have to be washed, but the sooner you start to teach your child tidiness, the easier it will be in kindergarten.

Children start using cutlery, a spoon and a fork, drinking from a cup on their own after a year. During this period, you should gradually refuse to use bottles with nipples, special mugs with lids for kids. By the time your child goes to kindergarten, these skills to use “adult” cutlery, though smaller, he should already be well developed, if you do not want your baby to stay hungry. Buy him a special children’s set, a spoon and a fork, teach him to hold them right away while eating.

Teaching him to eat by himself, prevent attempts to turn the process into a game. Do not entertain him, trying to feed “to the blade,” in kindergarten teachers will not encourage this approach. Teach your child to eat carefully, trying not to spill anything on your clothes or table. Teach him how to use napkins.

What's important to know and be able to teach a child before kindergarten, sight words for kindergarten

Parents should also take care of their baby’s diet. He will not have the choice of meals at day care. So teach him to eat what is offered. Explain that it will take a lot of energy for him to play and exercise, and that he should eat well.

One of the most necessary skills is the ability to go to the toilet on your own. Diapers, of course, is a convenient thing, but after two years, the child should be accustomed to the pot or toilet with a special seat. In kindergarten, he will be able to use the pot to which he is accustomed to at home, teachers will not be against it. Teach him to carefully use toilet paper, yourself remove and put on panties and tights.

Hygienic skills are also taught to the baby in front of kindergarten. One particularly important habit is washing your hands. This should be done not only before every meal, but also after walks and games. Teach him to roll up his sleeves so that he does not walk around with wet sleeves after each meal in kindergarten. Brushing his teeth will make it harder – not all young children like it. It is unnecessary to read the article sight words for kindergarten. So provide your child with a soft toothbrush and toothpaste that tastes good.

A child should be able to communicate.

The first communication skills the baby gets in the family. The more relatives and friends you have, the easier it will be for him to socialize in kindergarten. But a child can also learn to communicate during joint walks with his mother, meetings with other children on the playground. The more open the parents are to contact, the easier it will be for the child.

Show your child an example, actively communicate with outsiders, meet other parents and children. Encourage your child to take the initiative, if they are interested in others and other children, they should not be shy and should not close themselves off when others are talking to them. Visit with him or her and spend children’s holidays in your family. Leave him alone for a while with friends or relatives who are not living with you. A child should not be afraid that his parents or mother are not always around.

Give your child a sense of empathy, empathy, ability to put yourself in the place of another person. Even a three-year-old person can realize that not all of his whims and desires should be fulfilled, especially at the expense of other children. Tune him to the fact that with other boys and girls need to be friends and not hurt them, to share with them a treat and toys.

Instruct the child in the family for group forms of interaction: joint games, cleaning the apartment, evening meals, reading books, watching movies. The child should enjoy interacting with family members and outsiders, whether adults or children.

At the same time, your child should be able to play and practice on his own by the age of three. Leave him alone with toys more often, because even at home mom does not always have the opportunity to spend all the time with the child. Find him things that he can do for some time on their own: for example, drawing, coloring, modeling, assembling the designer, folding and moving items, toys.

What's important to know and be able to teach a child before kindergarten, sight words for kindergarten

Prepare your baby to the fact that the tutor is responsible for all children and can not pay attention only to your child. Keep the authority of carers in the family, do not let them speak ill of them in the presence of the child. And, importantly, teach them to articulate and express their wishes. This is so that the baby can ask to go to the toilet in time to tell the carer about her other needs.

Intellectual development of the child before kindergarten
Your baby’s level of development must also meet certain requirements. Of course, all children are different, but by the age of three the child should already be involved in thematic games, remember the proposed story and follow it in the game. He should know and be able to show body parts, to distinguish between sex and age of people, to distinguish and draw different geometric shapes – vertical and horizontal lines, circles.

Babies at this age are open to everything new. Tell the child fairy tales, read books, he should be able to listen carefully to what he is told. Find out how to listen to audio plays and productions designed for the youngest ones. Develop his or her memory, and teach him or her poems and songs. Expand his vocabulary by repeating new words, explaining new concepts to him. By the time you give your baby to kindergarten, he should already be able to write sentences of at least three or four words.

What's important to know and be able to teach a child before kindergarten, sight words for kindergarten

Conclusions
Preparing a child for kindergarten does not require much time or special knowledge from parents. But the knowledge and understanding of discipline imparted in advance will make the process of adaptation to the new conditions for the child much easier and shorter.

Can I study mathematics myself? How to get better at math?

Greetings! I think we should agree that mathematics is needed in various spheres of life: construction, IT, physics and so on. Most likely, if you are interested in learning mathematics, you already know why you need it.

From my experience, I can say that independent study of mathematics is quite difficult, but more than possible. It is necessary to have a great desire. But for help you can use the k-5 math resource.

Can I study mathematics myself? How to get better at math?

Can I not spend money on courses?
Yes, of course you can. Now we live in a time when you can get a lot from the Internet, and absolutely free.

How long does it take to learn math?
In general, this is a rather fuzzy question, it depends on several factors: how often you study, how deeply you want to study mathematics (for example, only school course or higher mathematics).

I can say that in order to repeat the whole school course, it takes about six months. It’s quite a long time, isn’t it? No one said it’d be fast.

How to get better at math?

If you’re not very fond of using textbooks, you can do a lot without them. However, sometimes you’ll have to read them.

In this article, I will not specify which sites to use and which books to read; I will write about it in my telegram to the channel (@become_datascientist).

I strongly recommend popular mathematics courses in English, because they are usually explained more clearly, and this is often free of charge. Yes, knowledge of English will not be superfluous. There are many lessons on YouTube and sites.

For practice, you can find tasks also on the Internet, or buy any textbook / collection of tasks, also suitable.

Top tips

  1. Don’t be afraid if you don’t understand something, it’s okay. If something is unclear, reread/listen the material several times and/or refer to another resource.
  2. 2. Solve difficult tasks and practice a lot. This is the only way you can best understand the topic. If you cannot solve a problem, try to rest and try again.
  3. Study every day, at least for an hour. Learning math should become a habit, like brushing your teeth.
  4. Don’t forget about rest, but remember that everything has its limits.
  5. Do not grind the material, but try to understand it. It is important to understand mathematics, that is, to be able to derive formulas and apply them, to prove theorems and so on. It will be very useful to constantly ask questions in the style of “why exactly so?” and answer them. Skip to the next topic only when you are sure that you have understood the previous one exactly and have worked it out in practice.
  6. Get yourself a mentor. It’s not always easy, but if you can, it’ll be really cool. Your mentor will always cheer you up.
  7. Don’t be afraid to change your math resources, it is very important to find one that is right for you.

So, you can learn math on your own, the main thing is to have a great desire. These were thoughts that I wanted to share. I wish you good luck with your math studies. Don’t give up, and you’ll succeed.

Can I study mathematics myself? How to get better at math?

What do we know about math skills
You must have said about yourself, “I don’t have any math skills.” And you graduated from the humanities class in general.

Most scientists will agree with you, but only because there is no evidence of innate mathematical ability. Researchers have been trying for years to learn about the inheritance of this skill. So far, one of the loudest recent works has been by scientists at the University of Pittsburgh (USA). They have proven that there is a correlation between the mathematical abilities of children and parents. But it’s caused not only by genetics, but also by social factors.

Besides mathematical ability, there is a mathematical sense, and it is inherited. It is because of it that we determine the shortest line, not counting the number of people. US scientists have compared how children at six months and three and a half years perceive numbers and the number of subjects. It turned out that kids who showed the best mathematical ability at an early age also showed the best result three years later, and the overall level of development was not correlated with mathematical ability.

But to exhale early (you probably already decided that would be in this experiment among children with mediocre results). Another group of researchers tested whether it was possible to develop mathematical abilities and learn to work with numbers in adulthood. It turned out that it was possible. Volunteers solved the problems, and then half of the experiment participants trained mathematical skills, while the control group did not, as the control group was supposed to. After that, all the participants again decided on arithmetic examples. Read how to get better at math for students. The math group showed much higher results than the control group.

Why do you need math? 9 arguments for parents and children, workbooks for 4th grade

Mathematical abilities will be useful for children in study and adult life – this is understood by most parents. Will you be able to tell us what benefits mathematics brings to you personally?

Will you be able to explain to the child why they need to do math? After all, learning concepts, laws of mathematics and logic, solving mathematical and logical problems requires mental effort. And what for at all it is necessary?

Why do you need math? 9 arguments for parents and children, workbooks for 4th grade

We have studied a number of scientific studies, and have identified real evidence of the benefits of mathematics.

Even if you are convinced that the life of your child will not be connected with mathematics, we recommend you to read our article anyway, so that at least with ease to answer the questions of a little “pochemuchka”.

  1. Mathematics develops thinking
    Studying math and solving problems, the child learns:

to summarize and highlight the important;
analyze and systematize;
to find patterns and establish causal relationships;
to reason and draw conclusions;
to think logically, strategically and abstractly.
Just as regular sports exercises “pump” the body, make it healthy, strong and enduring, so regular math lessons “pump” the brain – develop intelligence and cognitive abilities, expand the horizons.

Read also: In the article “5 reasons to learn to think like a mathematician” we have detailed the power of mathematical thinking and why to develop it.

  1. Mathematics exercises train memory
    Scientists at Stanford University in the U.S. have studied the process of solving mathematical problems and found that adults use for this purpose thinking and brought to automatism skill to “get” from the memory of the answers already available there.

Children under the age of 7 often use toes and toes, as well as various substitutes (real objects, counting sticks). In the “transition period”, between the ages of 7 and 9, schoolchildren develop an “adult” skill of “thinking”, comprehending and remembering information.

An interesting study was published in the journal Nature Neuroscience in 2014. First of all, it was devoted to studying the role of hippocampus (area in the brain) in the development of cognitive activity of children. But its indirect conclusions are as follows:

if you want your child at school to have no problems with workbooks for 4th grade, train your memory at an early age;
solving mathematical problems develops memory.

  1. Mathematics hardens character
    For correct solution of mathematical and logical problems one needs attentiveness, perseverance, responsibility, accuracy and carefulness.

Mathematics trains character muscles
The more regularly a child trains these “character muscles”, the stronger they become, the more often they help the child to solve not only educational tasks but also life problems.

  1. Music for Mathematics, Mathematics for Music
    A comprehensive study by Barbara H. Helmrich from Notre Dame College in Baltimore found that children who played musical instruments in high school were significantly better at math in high school.

Scientists have found that the same part of the brain is responsible for solving algebraic problems and processing musical information.

“The largest average difference in algebra results between any two groups of subjects was found between African-American “instrumental” groups and groups of “non-musical” schoolchildren.

Ironically, it’s as if scientists weren’t interested in feedback.
After all, if the same part of the brain is responsible for the development of mathematical and musical abilities, it is possible that math lessons improve musical abilities.

I remember Sherlock Holmes, who was both an excellent detective and a talented violinist. Many will say that the famous English detective was just a fiction, but he had his real prototype, his mentor and friend Arthur Conan Doyle. A passionate violinist was also the greatest physicist Albert Einstein.

  1. Mathematics helps to succeed in the humanities…
    It is early math skills that are the right precondition for a child to not only understand mathematics well in the future, but also to succeed in other school disciplines. Reading skills and the ability to manage one’s attention go next in importance for the contribution to learning achievement.

Such conclusions were reached by education and social policy scientists at Northwestern University in Evanston. In the study, they assessed the relationship between key elements of school readiness (basic skills for school admission – “academic” readiness, attention, social-emotional skills) and further academic success.

Mathematics is an interdisciplinary science and is closely linked to physics, geography, geology and chemistry. Sociology and economics are inseparable from mathematics, and many of the conclusions of even the humanities, such as linguistics, journalism, are based on mathematical models and concepts, mathematical and logical laws.

  1. 6. Develops skills for solving everyday problems
    Barbara Oakley, PhD, brain stem cell researcher and author of Think Like a Mathematician, underlines:

“Mathematics frees us from ‘magical thinking’ – we try to get to the heart of things and don’t rely on avosa and higher powers”.

The more complicated a mathematical problem becomes, the more skills are required to solve it. The child learns to reason, to build sequences, to think over algorithms, to juggle several concepts at once, and these skills become a habit.

Thanks to math, we get rid of bad habits:

we don’t speculate, we only operate with exact terms;
not just mechanically remembering information and rules, but evaluating, analyzing, thinking to understand and learn new material, new life lesson.

  1. Mathematics is the basis for a successful career.
    If 10-15 years ago the study of foreign languages was considered promising, nowadays no one is surprised by the free command of several languages. Now the professional demand largely depends on the understanding of technology, ability to think, abstract and ability to solve non-standard problems. It is extremely difficult to do without knowledge of mathematics for those who want to work in IT.

Abstract, critical and strategic thinking, analytical skills, ability to build algorithms – “masthave” for a good developer.

Why do you need math? 9 arguments for parents and children, workbooks for 4th grade

Effective mathematics gives confidence, because success in mathematics requires perseverance in trying to solve the most difficult, sometimes at first glance, “insoluble” problems and problems.

Test your strength: Mathematical puzzles to help you: 9 selected known problems for intelligence. How many can you solve?

  1. The solution of the problems produces psychological firmness
    Solving mathematical problems helps to improve the emotional background – it is an activity that can relieve anxiety, help control emotions and prevent stress.

Such conclusions were reached by scientists from Duke University in the United States, who were able to prove it in a study published in the journal “Clinical Psychology” in 2016.

  1. The pleasure of “X.”
    For someone who is serious about mathematics, mathematical formulas, equations and other logical and mathematical problems embody beauty, harmony and bring the same aesthetic pleasure as music, art and good jokes, says a group of researchers from several universities in the UK.

online gre course math .

Functional magnetic resonance imaging has recorded the brain activity of the subjects while demonstrating mathematical equations, formulas and problems. The results were published in the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience in 2014 online gre course math .

How to learn to experience the joy and pleasure of mathematics tells the famous American mathematician, a graduate of Harvard University, Stephen Strogats. A teacher of applied mathematics, winner of awards in mathematics and teaching in the pages of his book “The pleasure of X” with enthusiasm, simply and clearly explains the most important mathematical ideas.

What if you don’t understand math 1st grade at all?

The question of why to teach mathematics and how to understand it is often asked guys who, to put it mildly, this subject is not given. But, alas, OGE and EGE in mathematics still have to pass, regardless of whether you understand it or not.

Why do you need math 1st grade?

What if you don't understand math 1st grade at all?

If you have decided to become, for example, a journalist or political scientist, then the ability to calculate the integral or find a discriminant is really unlikely to be useful. But the systematic thinking that develops mathematics will help you in your work. In mathematics you will learn to think logically, to work simultaneously with a lot of factual material, to create and justify concepts, to express and prove your point of view.

How do you understand math? It is, like any language, a sign system. You will not be able to speak a foreign language simply by learning a dictionary but not knowing how to use the rules of grammar. A simple cut will not give you the desired result. Mathematics must learn to understand. From the first grade this subject is given on the principle of “from simple to complex. If something is missed in primary school, in high school “fast” to catch up material will not work.

What should I do?

Most parents, if a child gets a solid D or D in mathematics, are looking for a tutor or training course. In about 80% of cases, systematic extra tuition and a change of teacher (even if temporary) helps to solve the problem. So here the reason for low performance is that it is difficult for a student to keep up with the rest of the class or hesitates to ask a question if something is unclear, afraid of the teacher, there are gaps.

But what to do if the child is trying hard to understand mathematics, but he is not doing anything? And that’s where excuses usually start:

“No ability to do math 1st grade games.”
“He’s a pure humanitarian.”
“She’s a girl, why does she need math?”
“Mathematics is too difficult a subject.”
“Thank you, Marie Ivanna, we’ve been very useful in life.”
Alas, they don’t solve problems, but on the contrary, they make them worse. Mathematics is a compulsory exam in the 9th and 11th grades, and it is simply unreasonable to waste time on such excuses.

It’s not about abilities, it’s about the head.

According to child psychologists, children who do not have time for mathematics are similar in one thing: they are so afraid to make a mistake that this fear prevents them from gathering and solving the problem correctly. The roots, as always, lurk in primary school.

Undeveloped abstract thinking.
Bad reading skills.
Shyness.
Fear of getting bad grades.
Together, these factors prevent the child from understanding the rule and conditions of the task and result in failure, fear and misunderstanding. The child feels that he or she is impracticably stupid in terms of mathematics, and this feeling is reinforced by the disapproval of parents and teachers in various forms, from “You are retarded” to “You have the brain of a humanitarian”. A harmless school subject becomes an endless source of humiliation, fear, negative emotions.

Is it possible to correct the situation?

Psychologists recommend to act simultaneously in several directions.

First, it is necessary to find a teacher who is passionate about his subject and respectful of children, who can show that mathematics is not a boring set of numbers and incomprehensible rules, but a language spoken by the entire universe, with its own aesthetics and philosophy.
Secondly, humanistic children need to see sense in all their actions. As soon as they learn to see mathematics in the world around them, to apply its laws to familiar things, they will begin to make progress in the “hateful” subject.
Third, you can’t humiliate a child and say that he can’t do anything. If something fails, it is necessary to make attempts until it succeeds, using different ways of solving. The feeling of satisfaction from the fact that he himself coped with a difficult task or example, will give him confidence in his abilities, there will be a desire to try it again.
Fourthly, gaps in knowledge must be filled. How can we do that? To enroll a student in a preparatory course, the earlier the better, for example, 1.5 – 2 years before GIA or EGE. A large amount of material cannot be worked through and assimilated in a few months.
The proverbs “Not as scary as the devil is tiny” and “Fear has big eyes” are applicable to mathematics. This “monster” can well be tamed.

What if you don't understand math 1st grade at all?

Why do I need to focus on profile math 1st grade right away?

Good mathematics scores are required when applying to some humanitarian specialties, especially if they are related to economics, marketing and management. It happens that future linguists also take this course. It all depends on the university and its profile. The only thing that counts only for profile mathematics is that it is not indicated everywhere.

By choosing a profile math,

you significantly improve your chances of a budget;
you can apply to more universities;
you’ll start to better understand other subjects, especially languages.
And, of course, you will be able to respond with dignity to stupid jokes about humanitarian workers and “one, two, three, and then – a lot”.

How to learn to speak publicly

However, you can learn to speak to people fairly quickly by following simple rules.

How to learn to speak publicly

When speaking in front of an audience, the person usually worries about how he or she will be perceived, whether he or she will be able to convey his or her thoughts to the audience, and what the final result of his or her communication with the audience will be. All these fears cause severe stress, which in itself has a negative impact on the performance. In other words, the more the person worries that he or she will fail, the more likely it is that he or she will fail.

Ways to relieve stress
Learning to feel comfortable in the presence of a large audience helps only experience. However, there are ways to minimize the impact of tension on your performance.

  1. Artificial aggression. It is easy to say “don’t be afraid of the audience”, but in practice such advice gives nothing. A wedge bounces a wedge – before you go to the audience, cause a state of readiness for battle, confident and a little angry mood. To do this, you can sing this or that mobilizing song about yourself. For example, Vladimir Vysotsky’s song “Hunting for Wolves” would be perfect. You can pick up a suitable repertoire, tuning you up in a fighting mood. The result – you will reach the audience fully mobilized, which will help you perform well.

Self-esteem can be affected by a variety of factors. During these periods, it’s hard to keep up with any stress. How do you get your peace back? We’re watching the video!

  1. Throw in the future. Analyzing what you’re really afraid of when you speak to people? That you don’t look good, that you’ll be laughed at? Are you afraid of failure? Identify your fears, and then internally accept that all the terrible things you thought have already happened. You have failed your performance – you looked terrible, you were speaking Korean, you were openly laughed at, etc., etc., etc. Everything has already happened, you have accepted it, experienced it, so you have absolutely nothing to be afraid of. Accept the defeat, do not expect anything good. As a result, it will be much easier for you to perform.
  2. Rehearsal. Practice your performance alone with yourself. You can perform in front of the mirror, assessing yourself from the outside. But if you are not delighted with your reflection, train somewhere in nature, where there is no one. It will allow you to speak in full voice without being afraid of anyone. Such training produces very good results.
  3. A game of imagination. When you go to bed, lose a mental performance. Imagine it in every detail, sharpen the important moments. In your performances, you should look like a confident person, with a brilliant performance in front of the audience.

The determinants of success
1) One of the most important things is the ability to win the sympathy of the audience. Under no circumstances do not make excuses for anything. Do not apologize for the first time you perform, etc., it sets the audience against you. Don’t start with “Let me…”, “Let me…” and the like, it’s wrong. Start your speech confidently, with a short greeting and get right to the point.

How to learn to speak publicly
  1. It’s very important to feel in control of the situation, “keep the room”. If during your speech you see that the interest of the audience disappears, people start to talk, make noise, stop for a minute. Just keep quiet and look at the hall, it will make it dull. After that, continue your performance. Another option is to start talking about something completely different, preferably interesting. Once you get the audience’s attention back, say something like: “Well, is everyone back? Thank you, then we will continue”, after which continue your performance again.

A performance in front of an audience is a real art, it only comes into being with years of practice. But even the debut can be quite successful. All you have to do is to believe in yourself, to find the most appropriate options for internal mobilization. And most importantly, do not take everything that is happening too seriously.

How to choose the right profession?

According to the data of the All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Vocational Technical Education, about 40% of 1st year students of vocational schools are not satisfied with their chosen profession, and 40-60% of senior students of higher educational institutions do not want to work in their chosen profession. Studies show that only 10% of students adequately assess their abilities.
And some more figures:

How to choose the right profession
  • 25% of students choose their profession on the advice of friends;
  • 17% on the advice of their parents;
  • 9% are driven by random factors (e.g. the geographical proximity of the educational institution);
  • 10% of students choose an occupation influenced by the media;
  • the rest are guided by an interest in the content of the work.
    According to the Unified Tariff and Qualification Guide, there are more than 50,000 professions in the world. In Russia, there are more than 7,000 of them. This means that about 43 thousand professions do not exist in Russia yet. This may be due to climatic, social and economic conditions or the lack of demand for some kind of activity, or simply this or that area has not yet become relevant to us.

The period of labor activity in human life is limited, and therefore it is somehow offensive to spend 8 hours of your life every day on an unfavorable business. In this connection there is a question of professional self-determination. The question is relevant not only for those who finish school, but also for adults who suddenly realize that they are not doing what they want, but what they have done. So how do we choose a professional path and minimize possible mistakes and disappointments?

What prevents us from making the right choices?

  1. Ignorance of the world of professions – existing and relevant in the future.
    Existing professions are sometimes evaluated on the basis of the knowledge that Aunt Clava’s son works in a bank and Marjpetrovna works as an engineer in a factory. It does not matter that Aunt Klava’s son is not the owner of the bank, but just an accountant. The accountants always think that they literally sit on sacks of money and turn millions for their own benefit. And the psychologist is perceived as a walking X-ray of human souls. Hence the very common jokes about “you’re a doctor”, “you’re a translator”, “you’re a manager” and so on. Thus, it turns out that most people do not know the specifics of some professions and have an extremely superficial idea about their content. As for the promising professions, the time when everybody was trying to become economists and lawyers has gone irrevocably. Today, there are more than enough representatives of these professions. The labour market in Russia today requires specialists in the following areas:
  • In marketing and management, the main demand for vendors, marketers, logisticians and advertising specialists.
  • In the field of information technology need system administrators, 1C programmers, specialists involved in the development of Internet sites (web-programming, web-design), search engine optimization specialists responsible for promoting sites, content managers responsible for the content of the site.
  • In the economy requires credit experts, financial analysts, accountants.
  • Professions in construction, hotel services and tourism have been and remain in demand, especially with the organization of the Winter Olympics in Sochi in 2014, the FIFA World Cup in 2018, and the development of the tourism and recreation industry in Russia.
  • There is also a high demand for engineers, process engineers and technicians among technical professions.
  • According to analysts, in five years one of the most popular professions will be ecologist, chemist and specialist in innovative technologies.
  1. Ignorance of career choice rules
    A misperception of the nature of the activity leads to choices that do not correspond to the human inclinations, abilities and character traits. A profession can be chosen on the basis of the idea of it as romantic (geologist, actor), intelligent (doctor, engineer, scientist), fashionable (designer, lawyer, manager), monetary (broker, sailor, plastic surgeon) or on the basis of the fact that several generations of families have been engaged in it.

Rules for choosing a profession

  • It is necessary to identify areas of activity in which there is a need today, to communicate with successful representatives of the profession, who have been engaged in it for many years. This will allow to see the perspective for the next 2-3 years.
  • Find out which institutions provide training for these professions. It is better to choose public educational institutions with a name, collect the maximum number of reviews about them, read the training programs and see the teaching staff.
  • Find the opportunity to practically try your hand in this environment, at least as a trainee or freelancer.
  • Evaluate the real employment opportunity, see the latest research on job search sites or job vacancies in large organizations, as well as the demand for the profession in different regions of Russia and abroad.
  • Do not give in to the indirect or direct influence of friends, because they come from their ideas about what you need, and it can be great to disperse with your. In addition, even close people tend to project their negative experiences. If Uncle Vasya went into trade in the 90s after he worked as an engineer, it is unlikely that he will adhere to the opinion that an engineer is a wonderful profession. It is important to remember that the attitude to the profession of any person is made up of many factors.
How to choose the right profession

3) Ignorance of oneself – in terms of health, abilities, personal qualities of goals and tastes.
Often lawyers are sought by those who can not tolerate painstaking work, the psychologist is studied by absolutely emotionally deaf people, and geological expeditions dream of individuals with deep chronic diseases. So before choosing the future field of activity, listen to yourself and assess your capabilities.

The main thing to remember is that the work is attractive only when it meets the internal response, and thus meets our aptitudes. Often the activity can be liked by its results, the benefits it brings, recognition in society, social status and other benefits it provides. But a true propensity always means being disposed to the process of activity itself, when the work is not just a means to achieve some goals, but also becomes attractive and inspiring.

How do you ask for a salary increase?

Internal mood
Many sincerely believe that if they selflessly give their strength, knowledge and time to work, the bosses simply have to notice and appreciate it. However, time goes by, the duties are expanding, you come back from work later and later, and nothing changes. It is no secret that most managers appreciate diligent executive employees, ready to take responsibility, to save the department during the total aurora, not asking unnecessary questions, etc., but, as you know, “whoever is lucky is the one who is loaded”. There is nothing shameful about asking for more compensation for your, by no means modest work. There is nothing shameful about it. You do not humiliate yourself with such a request, but ask because you know the price for yourself as a professional. Now concentrate, because before entering the chief’s office, you need careful preparation.

How do you ask for a salary increase

Armed, so you’re warned.
First, answer the question, “For what reasons should the chief raise your salary?” There are three components to determining your value as an employee:

  • the value of your work to the organization;
  • the available knowledge, skills and abilities combined with your potential;
  • the average market value of the work of a specialist in your profile and level.

Now is the time to systematize the necessary information. Write on paper all your achievements in a given organization, even if some of them seem insignificant to you. There are no trifles in such matters. Use clear statements such as “re-equipped/la office for a month”, “found/laid 17 key clients for six months”, “increased/laid sales for a similar amount compared to the same quarter last year”, etc. Next, write your business and human qualities, which help you to cope with this work perfectly. Don’t forget to include information about advanced training, current studies at a second university or foreign language study. Such a detailed description of your activities will not only help you structure your conversation with your boss, but also help you look at yourself with new eyes. Finding out about the average salary in your industry will take more time. Use job sites, information from friends and acquaintances working in the same or a related industry. The chief may want to know how you know this. So be prepared for this, however, as well as for objections like “let’s wait”, “others will want to”, “we just recently moved to a new office”, “the HR department may disagree with me”, “do I pay you little?

In the right place at the right time.
You’ve prepared all the necessary information, but it’s hardly worth throwing it on the chief’s head like that. It is best to ask for a salary increase in favorable periods for the company, especially if the meeting just ended, at which the chief in a hearing said that you did a good job on the 5 +. It’s not a good idea to ask for a raise on payday. It is advisable to discuss this issue in the afternoon, when the intensity of the workload decreases and towards the end of the week, when the leadership, along with the subordinates, also dreams of a weekend. Depending on the relationship with the management, it is possible to ask for a raise in a joking manner, for example, at the corporate level, when the barriers to communication are not as severe as in the usual formal environment. If you know when your company approves next year’s budget that includes a personnel cost item, it’s a good time to ask for a raise before approving the budget so you don’t have to hear from management next year that everything is already planned. Most often the budget is approved in the autumn. In no case should you raise the issue of a raise if the chief is not in the mood. You risk bringing thunder and lightning to your head.

Which is definitely not worth doing.
Managers often find it difficult because employees who come in with questions about the raise, instead of building a constructive dialogue, start to stomp on their feet and unreasonably demand preferences. This is guaranteed to piss management off:

  1. Blackmail. “Either you give me a raise or I quit!” This method can work, of course, but only if you’re really an indispensable employee. Nobody, especially the superiors, likes to be pinned to the wall. At best, hear a polite rejection, at worst – in the future, the boss will do everything possible to break up with you.
  2. A reference to competitors. “Company X. Offers me twice what I get now!” Even if not knowing it, the chief was planning to raise your salary, now he is likely to change his mind, and also very much doubt your loyalty to the company. Only a quick switch to the fact that you actually have this information from the Internet can save you, but you would like to get such a sum that, of course, will have to competently argue.
  3. Snacking. “I haven’t been on vacation in three years”, “I’m always sitting at work till 10 pm without raising my head”, “I miss my salary”. If the company is white, you just can’t be on vacation for years, unless, of course, you take compensation for unused vacation. Sitting up late can sometimes indicate that you are misallocating your time, which may raise additional questions from management.
  4. Comparison with colleagues, friends or newcomers. “In the neighboring department they don’t swell like that, but their salaries are higher”, “And my classmates now get more”, “Why did Petrov only work here for six months and his salary is higher?” The chief can seriously think about the fact that all your working time you spend talking about someone else’s salary, but the work itself does not interest you much. It is better to talk about your own achievements in the company and the area of your nearest development.

You’re in the chief’s office.

  1. Establishing contact. Be friendly, say hello to your manager, smile, sit comfortably, take an open pose. Be sure to keep eye contact.
  2. use the correct phrasing. You are not here to “demand” or “ask”, but to “discuss wage indexing”. You have to agree, it sounds solid, and you’re not like a petitioner either. You should talk on equal terms.
  3. Save your management time. You shouldn’t go around in circles, mumbling or hinting. Tell me why you’re here right away and clearly. This is polite, and also gives the interlocutor the opportunity to orientate themselves in the situation.
  4. 4. Prepare the ground and set the direction of the conversation. Thank the company and the chief for the opportunities and knowledge you have gained. Tell them that you have also done a lot to make the company flourish. This is where your achievements, professional qualities and market overview will come in handy.
  5. Don’t keep quiet. As long as the chief is in reflection, you can accompany this process with unobtrusive comments. Talk about your unwillingness to leave the company, about the prospects that you are interested in this particular company, that you want to continue to respond to attackers attacking you headhunters, that your work is very pleased with you in terms of responsibilities, authority, responsibility, prospects for development and remuneration.
  6. Enhance the effect. When you feel that your boss is ready to give an answer, but still hesitating, it is time to say that if there is any opportunity, you are ready to work with triple efforts, take more responsibility, develop a new product/service, lead a new direction, etc.
  7. Final requirement. And finally, tell your boss what kind of salary (the amount must match the market) you want to receive. If there are no objections in principle, then talk about the exact date.
How do you ask for a salary increase

If there is still a rejection.
Thank your boss for his attention. Check with him on the conditions under which your issue can be resolved positively. What can you do, for your part, to get more? If the boss promised to think about it, it is better to agree immediately on a specific date when you can return to this conversation. It is desirable to return to the issue of salary increase 1-2 times a year. So you remind about your achievements and make it clear that you can do much more with a certain incentive. Put yourself in the leadership position. It is possible that you have chosen a bad time to talk, because the profits have fallen and the budget is very limited. The worst option is if the company has stopped in its development and the future prospects are not clear to you. Then you should definitely think about changing jobs.

How to find your free time

How to find your free time

Laura Vanderkam, an American journalist specializing in time management topics, took a serious interest in this contradiction. Obviously, people who are able to manage everything in time manage their time in a different way – there can be no other secret.

Another obvious thing that the writer discovered was that we all have a lot of time. A superficial calculation reveals that if we subtract important things like work and sleep from our schedule, there are still 72 hours a week left to spend on anything and everything. And this is without calculating that we often do not get enough sleep, and working days are not always full of work.

By applying a few rules, which you will find in your schedule so much time you need, Laura offers in her Book of Lost Time.

Read .
By that very simple formula. First, put together the working hours per week, sleeping time and other things that are mandatory for you – time to get home, exercise in the gym, time with the family, household chores. Subtracting the time of all your workloads from the 168 hours of the week, you will see how much objective free time you actually have.

It’s hard for a working woman not only to find the time, but also to switch from office to home rhythm. Where does our energy go and how do we get it back? We’re watching a video!

Record everything that took your time.
It means to analyze your real employment in more detail – at work, at home, during your usual activities. It is enough to do it within two typical weeks. Objectively, many cases can take much less time than they actually take. The rest is your new free time.

Make a list of the “untimely”
This should include the things you really want to do, not the things that circumstances require of you. An analysis of this list can yield the most astonishing results. As long as unrealized dreams are in our heads, they can remain dreams. When you realize that you have time, you will realize that you don’t want everything so much. The heroine of the story from the book by Laura Vanderkam wanted to lose weight, but when she did fitness for this purpose, she realized that she just liked sports, and the extra pounds went by themselves.

Thinking about what others could do.
Especially if they’re doing it better or better than you. This includes household chores (including what you can order from special services), work functions, and small tasks.

How to find your free time

Random time to fill in your favourite activities.
There will be plenty of free space for this step – on the way to work, waiting in line, due to postponed meetings, time in traffic jams and any force majeure. So you can learn the language, do physical exercises, relax, read books, spend time as a hobby.

Prepare a list of lessons for different periods of time.
What can be done in 10-20 minutes and what will take more time. This way you can fill in your schedule, getting the most out of your free time.

Eliminate inefficient tasks
To go where you can call, an extra beaten hour to mourn over the small details of the entire finished project, to visit as a courtesy. Everyone will have points, the implementation of which does not bring you in general neither benefit nor pleasure.

How to get rid of insomnia

How to get rid of insomnia

In some cases, the causes of insomnia are not so obvious, and the methods of fighting it can be very diverse and sometimes even unexpected. A universal remedy in such a situation is sleeping pills prescribed by a doctor. However, this drug often causes side effects and has a negative effect on the body as an addiction, a state of depression, weakness, dizziness and so on. In other words, this method should be left as a last resort, when other methods simply do not work.

First of all, to get rid of insomnia can use folk recipes.

Respiratory gymnastics

Not bad proved to be a special breathing gymnastics, which can be performed while lying in bed.

  1. Before starting the exercise, it is necessary to fully relax the muscles of the face and body. Take a deep breath, count to 7, exhale, counting to 10. Do the exercise with your eyes closed, lying on your back. Perform 5-10 repetitions.

In addition to breathing exercises, it is recommended to drop a couple of drops of lavender, lemon balm or valerian oil on the pillow. They will help to relax.
Breathe them in and feel how the body is filled with vitality.

You can also use breathing exercises used in yoga classes – close one nostril, take a deep breath for the other. Hold your breath for 2-4 seconds, exhale. Then repeat the exercise by closing the other nostril. Do 3-4 of these cycles.

Grasses

Another tried-and-tested recipe for insomnia, which our grandmothers used many centuries ago, is to stomp on the armful of red clover mixed with dried hops for about 30 minutes. After that, you should go straight to bed. This procedure should be repeated every night. Soon you will notice that you started sleeping like a baby.

A monotonous lesson

How to get rid of insomnia

If you just can’t sleep, a great way to get rid of insomnia is to do a monotonous, monotonous exercise. Read some boring book or do some knitting. You should never check your e-mail, watch TV or reply to your phone messages at the same time. It’s just a distraction and won’t let you dive into Morpheus’ arms.

Some people fall asleep with a glass of warm milk and honey drunk at night. Milk can be replaced with green tea, chamomile infusion or regular warm water.

Sports

In addition, sometimes insomnia occurs because the person does not have time to relax after work and, even coming home, continues to think about the duties and problems. Therefore, after a day of work you should go to the gym, meet friends, pay attention to your hobby or just take a walk to tune yourself to a non-working mood.

How to make a collage yourself

How to make a collage yourself

Made by yourself collage can be an interesting decorative element of the interior or a gift for a holiday.

Master Class: Photo collage “Winter joys”.
A pleasant evening with the family can be spent making paintings from Christmas photographs. We are sure that your children will love this idea!
Read more
Tools and materials will be required:

pictures;
a backing for gluing;
glue;
scissors.

Some do not stop there and use for collage creation various decorative details: beads, tapes, applications, buttons and others. In addition, colored pencils or felt-tip pens for drawing are not superfluous.

How to make a collage:

Before you start creating a photo collage, you should decide on its size and base. For example, it is recommended to make large photopanes on a hard surface. This could be a sheet of cardboard of the right size or plywood, a cork cloth, a Watman.

In addition to the substrate, a concept is also required. A clear plan must be drawn up for what the future collage will be like. For example, for a holiday or a trip. On the basis of the idea, the necessary photos, magazine clippings and decorative elements are selected.

Pictures do not necessarily have to be placed exclusively sequentially one after another. They can be glued diagonally, overlapping, with different steps between photos, at an angle. Everything depends on a concept that has been thought out in advance. In addition, the images can be glued in some form. For example, hearts by filling it with photos of different sizes.

To keep the images on the basis of tight, and the excess glue did not come out of the edges, you need to apply it to the photo, stepping back 5-7 mm from the edge. Once all the photos have been placed in the collage, you can complement it with decorative elements and paintings. All that can be glued is glued to a suitable adhesive.

How to make a collage yourself

For example, feathers, sand, tapes hold well on PVA. But beads, beads, bulk elements require a stronger adhesive. For example, from a special thermal gun or on a rubber basis. Drawing is usually applied either at the edges of the collage or in between photos and clippings. Once the photopane is ready, it can be inserted into the frame to complete the work.

It is even easier to make a collage on a computer because only the right program is needed. Many people support not only the creation mode, but also editing, the ability to glue stickers, add captions, which significantly expands the range of work.

Photo collages created on your computer can not only be placed on social networks or a website, but also printed later in the photo studio. If possible, the workshop can choose the right size for printing – from standard A4 format to large wall collages.