8 strategies for developing student motivation in mathematics

Student motivation is one of the most important aspects of mathematics instruction and an important aspect of any curriculum. The eight motivational strategies discussed below have repeatedly proven their effectiveness, and I can honestly recommend them to my colleagues.

Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation including addition sentences for word problems
Extrinsic motivation is always based on the benefits that teachers or parents promise the student. Intrinsic motivation is always based on the student’s own desire to achieve some goal.

Strategy 1. Demonstrate failure in student knowledge
Give several assignments, among which will be very simple, simple and difficult. On very simple and easy assignments, students will get a taste for the process of doing, but will stumble on the difficult ones. There may be a desire for the new knowledge needed to complete difficult assignments.

Strategy 2. Show a sequence of knowledge.
This strategy is related to the previous one. It is important to prove to students that they have the necessary basic knowledge set to easily grasp the new topic including pennies, nickels, and dimes.

Strategy 3. Suggest little tricks.
For example, if your students need to learn the multiplication table, prompt them with the following patterns:
1. When multiplied by 1, any number remains the same.
2. All examples for 5 end in 5 or 0: if the number is even, assign 0 to half the number; if it is odd, assign 5.
3. All examples for 10 end in 0 and start with the number we are multiplying by.
4. Examples by 5 are half as many as examples by 10 (10 × 5 = 50, and 5 × 5 = 25).
5. To multiply by 4, we can simply double the number twice. For example, to multiply 6 × 4, you have to double 6 twice: 6 + 6 = 12, 12 + 12 = 24.
6. To memorize multiplication by 9, write down a series of answers in a column: 09, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81, 90. Remember the first and the last number. All the others can be reproduced by the rule: the first digit in a two-digit number increases by 1, and the second decreases by 1.

Strategy 4. Challenge the students for example about telling the time – whole hours
When children are challenged, even taken “for granted,” they light up. Just choose the task for this challenge carefully; it should be challenging, but within the students’ abilities.

Strategy 5. Offer a paradoxical challenge.
For example, when studying probability theory, talk about a paradoxical problem with birthdays. In a group of 23 or more people, the probability of at least two people’s birthdays (number and month) being the same is greater than 50%. For example, if there are 23 or more students in a class, it is more likely that some of the classmates’ birthdays will fall on the same day than that everyone will have their own unique birthday.
For 60 or more people, the probability of this coincidence exceeds 99%, although it reaches 100%, according to the Dirichlet principle, only when there are at least 367 people (exactly 1 more than the number of days in a leap year; taking into account leap years).
This statement may not seem obvious, because the probability of coincidence of birthdays of two people with any day of the year (1/365 = 0.27%), multiplied by the number of people in the group (23), gives only (1/365)×23 = 6.3%. This reasoning is incorrect because the number of possible pairs (( 23 × 22 )/2 = 253) far exceeds the number of people in the group (253 > 23). Thus, the statement is not a paradox in the strict scientific sense: there is no logical contradiction in it, and the paradox lies only in the differences between the intuitive perception of the situation by a person and the results of mathematical calculation.

Strategy 6. State the practical usefulness of the topic.
When studying interest, make up a problem about bank loans. Draw on material that the children will be familiar with: for example, a situation in which they take out an educational loan.

Strategy 7. Tell a relevant and interesting story.
For example, about how Carl Friedrich Haass solved complex math problems in 1 minute when he was 10 years old.

Strategy 8. Discuss mathematical curiosities with your children.
For example, that the number 37 has many curious properties. For example, multiplied by 3 and by numbers divisible by 3 (up to and including 27), it gives products represented by a single digit:
37 × 3 = 111;
37 × 6 = 222;
37 × 9 = 333;
37 × 12 = 444;
37 × 15 = 555;
37 × 18 = 666;
37 × 21 = 777;
37 × 24 = 888;
37 × 27 = 999.

Math teachers need to understand the underlying motivations already present in students. The teacher can then play on these motivations to maximize interaction and enhance learning.

How to teach a child to count

Every parent wants to see their child smart beyond his years and familiar with adjectives that start with i to describe a person. However, not all children develop quickly, surprising others with extraordinary intelligence. Some kids learn easily, while others perceive information with difficulty. Therefore, adults will need to make efforts so that the child as soon as possible to master the basic knowledge, among which a special place is counting. This skill will give a start to further successful learning in school, the development of thinking, memory and intelligence. How to teach a child to count, what, how and when to do – read in our article.

Learning to count: general

recommendations

There is no need to rush and load a small child full of lessons about area of a triangle practice problems, but to prepare him to mastering counting is worth starting from infancy. Training is carried out systematically and in stages, depending on the age of the baby:

Up to a year old. A one-year-old child’s brain is not ready for the perception of complex information. The most important thing at this stage is to develop fine motor skills and figurative thinking. It is useful to repeat nursery rhymes, curling the fingers on the hands of a baby.
From 1 to 3 years. It’s time to acquaint your baby with the concept of “a lot or a little. Here all kinds of play materials will help. Explain that one toy in your hand – it’s a little, and in a box a lot of them. Looking at training books, you can ask what kind of figures in the picture more, what less, or equal amount. At age 2, a child can not yet consciously count, but already three years – is able to learn to count to 5.
From age 3 to 4. At this age, clarity is important for learning. You can start to count everything in sight: fingers, sticks, toys, trees, steps, candy. Three- to four-year-old toddlers love to help their parents with household chores. This urge can be used to teach them. There are many options: put four cups on the table, count the cakes and tell if there are enough for all members of the family, serve three napkins, etc.
Ages 4 to 5. Explain the principle of formation of numbers from digits and try to count to 100. If the child understands, you can assume that he was born with a mathematical mindset, and if the information is given with difficulty, do not despair, he will definitely understand everything later.
At the age of 5 or 6, go from visualization to counting in your head, without the help of fingers or sticks. It is worth practicing counting backwards, adding and subtracting.
In order that lessons for the baby were in pleasure and did not cause a negative reaction, you need to adhere to simple rules:

Remain calm and patient. Nervous and snapping at the shouting can discourage learning. At the first signs of the child’s negative reaction, fatigue, loss of interest, you need to interrupt the training.
Conduct classes with kids only in the form of a game. To make a child absorb information, do not necessarily put him behind a desk, to learn better in the game: scoring goals at the gate, building a construction set, loading cubes truck, jumping rope. With preschoolers can start more serious lessons, but their duration should not exceed 15-20 minutes.
Include surrounding objects in the training. Everything is suitable for counting: spoons, mugs on the table, candy, fruit, cars in the yard, children playing on the playground.
Keep in mind the individuality of the child. You should not demand from your baby more than he is able to do at this stage. Doesn’t understand – come back to the subject later. Understanding comes to everyone in its own time.
Involve the child’s senses. Learning is more productive if the kid shifts items of counting himself, says the numbers out loud. Connect to the process of smell and taste can be a simple trick: count the candy before you eat it or flowers, inhaling the fragrance of each.
Beginning training, you need to give the child time to get used to the terms, names, the process itself and only then try to convey the meaning of what is being studied. When the baby understands the spoken meanings, you should move on to memorization.

How to get your child into math

Mathematics “according to Peterson” is widely known not only in Russia. In December 2018, Ludmila Georgievna’s textbook for elementary and basic schools successfully passed all the necessary examinations and returned to the federal list by numerous requests from teachers and parents. At the beginning of the school year, we asked her to tell us how to help a child with math, how to get adults interested in it, and why it is important for children to feel math magician addition.

How do you get a child interested in math if the teaching at school is mediocre?
First of all, let’s say that “mediocre teaching” is a very arbitrary term. All parents and teachers have different ideas of what it should be. But in general I understand what you mean: let’s say a child comes home from school with glazed eyes, and the word “math” makes him or her cringe.

Let’s try to understand why it is impossible to tear children away from computers, for example, as opposed to learning math. What is it that draws them to computer games? I think there are a number of factors:

they’re not forced to play;
They aren’t scolded if they don’t succeed;
Children understand the goal (to score a goal, overcome an obstacle), it’s meaningful to them, and they achieve it themselves;
they are interested in the content and design;
achievements are necessarily recorded (points, levels), which feeds the sense of victory;
the results of the game are meaningful for peers, and, thus, the child’s need for recognition is satisfied.
This set of factors sufficiently provides the mechanism of “must” – “want” – “can” motivation. You could use an analogy to get your child interested in math.

1. The main thing – not to force, but to inspire
The desire to do anything arises only in an atmosphere of mutual respect, trust and goodwill. Without a close relationship with the children, parents can do little to help them, except buy food, clothes and stationery.

It is very important to understand what makes a child reluctant to study. Perhaps he doesn’t understand what is the cogat. This requires a calm, non-judgmental conversation. Your child needs to be sure that you’re not asking him or her to evaluate or admonish you, but to help him or her cope with the things he or she isn’t good at yet.

Give him or her a chance to speak out. Think together about the reasons why math has moved into the category of unloved subjects. It is always easier to write everything off to “mediocre teaching” or something else external that does not require work on yourself. But this doesn’t help solve the problem, rather the opposite. To inspire children to work on themselves, you should sincerely believe in them and never get tired of telling them that they will succeed.

2. Not to scold the child for mistakes and bad marks
It doesn’t mean to remain indifferent to his results. On the contrary, the adequate reaction of parents to failure is empathy and complicity: “Let’s figure out what has not yet succeeded. It is not a lecture that helps to move forward, but an awareness of one’s problems.

Each child develops at his or her own pace, so it is not so much the result that counts, but rather the dynamics in relation to oneself.

Any effort is already a small victory. A correctly completed task is one more step. Having achieved something that I could not do before, is the next step.

It is very important to notice and fix any movement forward, even the smallest one. Then the child will feel that he is not the one to blame, that his parents are on the same side with him, that they are his friends and support.

3. Help achieve the goal
The child’s awareness of what is not working out so far will help lead him to a new goal. In learning, it is always to learn what he “doesn’t know” yet, to learn what he “doesn’t know” yet. That is why it is so important to understand what exactly causes difficulties. Let me give an example of introductory dialogue. Suppose he says he doesn’t understand anything about math.

– Nothing at all? Let’s leaf through a textbook or a notebook.

– Is this the kind of task you know how to do? How about this?

Looking through the textbook with your child, you should first show the simplest tasks, then the most difficult ones. And so on, until you find something you really don’t understand. Then you need to think together about how to do these tasks.

– Great! You’ve figured out what you need to learn (the goal). Now let’s think about how to do it?

It is important to let the child speak, listen to his/her options, suggest possibilities he/she has not named. There can be many of them. For example, approach the teacher, ask a friend or an older sister, figure it out from a textbook by himself or with you.

The main thing is to outline a plan of action and bring it to a successful result. Let your child believe in himself, be sure to pay attention to what you’ve accomplished: “That’s cool, and you said you couldn’t do it!”

4. Maintain interest
Of course, it is useful to involve a child of any age and any level of training in solving playful and non-standard tasks. It is always better to start small. Throw in a problem he is sure to cope with, and then another one that is more difficult.

Now on the Internet you can find a lot of interesting tasks of any complexity, not limited, of course, only to our textbook. For example, a wonderful book by J. Perelman. Perelman’s great books: “Entertaining Mathematics,” “Funny Tasks,” “Quick Count,” “Live Mathematics”; B. Kordemsky’s “Mathematical Savvy”; A. Kalinina, E. Katz, and A. Tilipman’s “Mathematics in Your Hands,” TED cartoons, and many others.

Don’t rush him, don’t hum if he gives the wrong answer. Marvel at his accomplishments: “Wow, I didn’t guess that! That’s great!” Explain salutatorian definition.

If the child’s eyes light up when he talks about the problem he was able to solve, then he is ready to set higher goals – first participating and then winning in various math Olympiads. There are many of them now, in addition to the All-Russian Olympiad for schoolchildren, in-person and online. The main thing is to make sure that interest is not lost, and the level and pace are within his grasp.

5. To notice and fix the situation of success
The child will always strive only for what he is good at. We all, like water for life, need a situation of success. Educator Vasily Sukhomlinsky wrote: “The moral strength to overcome his weaknesses a child draws from his successes.

Thus success is not directly connected with marks. For example, you can get an “A” for a paper you have written off. There is nothing to be happy about. But you can, with effort, reach a “C” – a real victory! Her formula: “difficulty – effort in overcoming it – success.” The greater the effort, the greater the joy of victory.

Adults often praise the child only for the marks. I think that it is much more important to watch his or her efforts, dynamics, achievement of goals and to share with him or her the joy of victories.

6. Making victories meaningful family events
The need for recognition and respect of others is one of the basic needs of any person. Recognition breeds self-confidence, a desire to achieve results that are meaningful to others.

This is why it is so important to pay attention to the family’s successes. Tell grandmother and grandfather about your child’s victories. Remember and rejoice at a family dinner or on a walk. This will not only encourage your child to do math, but it will also help your child develop self-respect.

These simple rules are just some model to follow that won’t hurt. Of course, it is important that mathematics be of interest to the parent himself: the greater the benefit will be the more he is enthusiastic about it. After all, you can hardly be fascinated by something you are not interested in yourself.

So what should adults do who didn’t like math at school, but now realize that they are missing out on something important? Where do you start?
There are more and more adults like that these days. I recently came across a book by Nellie Litvack, a professor of mathematics at the University of Twente in the Netherlands, co-authored with Alla Kechejan, “Mathematics for Hopeless Humanities,” which was born as a response to this demand from adults. The authors, learning how many readers the book had, created a Facebook group for them called “Mathematics Is Great and Terrible. It now has tens of thousands of members and is growing steadily.

This is just one example, but there are many other great books to recommend. For example, “The Great Novel of Mathematics. A History of the World through the Prism of Mathematics” by Michael Lone. This book comes in a series called “The Pleasure of Science” and helps you understand how interesting and exciting mathematics is. The author talks about the history of this science from antiquity to the present day and what it will become in tens, hundreds of years.

The abacus – the oldest calculating machine

Where does the term “abacus” come from?

The term “abacus” has a meaning not only in mathematics, but also in architecture. There it stands for a column top plate, a board-like upper member of the capital. In other words, a “square plate at the head of columns. But it also has the meaning ” of a “command staff at temples” (in: Wiktionary). However, all this is not meant in the following. Here it concerns the “abacus”, which can be called probably rightly the oldest calculating machine of mankind. How to use an abacus?

According to Duden, the word “abacus” comes from the Greek, from “abákion”, and stands for arithmetic or game board of antiquity. If we go back to Latin, it comes from the word “abacus”.

Of course, the word abacus also exists in German sign language. To see it, please click here:

If it goes after the Duden, then as plural of the word “the abacus” “the abacus” is to be used (Duden, 1999). This sounds strange at first, but it is so. I stick to the plural formation. Since the Duden is no longer binding for the German language, the plural formation 1 in the Wiktionary should also be mentioned here. Here the plural 1 is namely “the Abaki” and obviously derived from Latin, as well as the word “abakus”. This makes sense in my opinion. The plural 2 is therefore “the abacuses” (in: Wiktionary).

The abacus has practically no meaning as a calculating device in Europe today. Electronic pocket calculators have replaced it. However, there are various abacuses for learning basic arithmetic operations for children, especially in pre-school and primary school age. In Asian, but also Arabic countries, arithmetic with the abacus is still learned in special arithmetic schools. It has been proven that it promotes the ability for quick and secure mental arithmetic even with very large numbers.

The historical roots of the abacus

The historical roots of the abacus probably lie in Asia, because “already around 1100 B.C. this ‘calculating machine’ was known in China” (Microsoft ENCARTA Encyclopedia PLUS 99). Originally, in this ancient advanced civilization, number rods were placed on printed tablets. Later, pierced counting stones were slid back and forth on sticks. This was already the basic form of an abacus. These stones now had a clear, always constant order, a place value system. They could be moved according to one’s own idea, but better according to a uniform calculation rule. Other sources assume that the abacus was developed by the Babylonians (National Geographic, November 2010, page 32): https://argoprep.com/blog/k8/abacus/.

The Chinese abacus came to Japan and was further developed into the soroban. The Indians also used similar things for arithmetic, namely so-called “dust tables”. The Babylonians already had tables for calculating with the multiplication tables around 1350 BC. By the way, why shouldn’t mankind in their advanced civilizations of that time make parallel and independent inventions of abacus or calculating boards? By the way, also the Maya knew the abacus. They called it Nepohualtzintzin. Whether it made the leap across the Atlantic, or was invented in parallel, certainly still needs clarification.

The cultural basis for the abacus used today in Europe is probably to be found in ancient Greece. The unique find of the “Salaminic Arithmetic Table” (National Museum in Athens), represents such a mathematical primitive device from the Greek cultural sphere. It was made of white marble and its age is estimated to the third century BC. On this historical abacus a division into fields is achieved by horizontal and vertical lines. Further one finds on it Greek number signs. On this arithmetic board it was possible to move loose arithmetic blocks back and forth. Here was a clear mathematical order, which could be used according to fixed rules. A miscalculation became improbable. There must have been something similar to the “Salaminic arithmetic table” also as an arithmetic table. The Greeks called their version of the abacus “abákion”.

“In ancient times … the Romans used a sand-covered wax tablet, a marked plate, or a notched tablet or plate” for arithmetic (Microsoft ENCARTA Encyclopedia PLUS 99). It is known from finds that they used hand abacuses made of clay for their arithmetical calculations. The Roman name “abacus” was used for this, the eponym of all modern abacuses.

The illustration of an ancient Roman hand abacus shows seven rows of four beads at the bottom and one at the top. Between the two rows of slits in the vertical you can find Roman numerals. It was probably used in a similar way to a Japanese abacus (soroban). With this Roman abacus, even fractions were possible. The beads of the two additional right rows stand for whole, half, quarter and third ounces. The similar construction of the Roman abacus with the Greek and Chinese abacus of that time is obvious. But there is especially an astonishing similarity with the Japanese soroban. This is probably an ancient technology transfer from the Asian to the Southeast European area, perhaps due to wars, trade relations or travelers.

With these ancient abacuses, one could safely handle all calculations in the commercial or statesmanlike field at that time. It should be remembered that it was not only a matter of actual arithmetic. The known world at that time was still far away from a uniform currency or measurement system. Just such conversions, therefore, were common in all places. In the old Rome, with their Roman numbers, one knew no “zero” and thus also no units, tens or hundreds etc.. The balls or calculating stones, Latin “calculi”, represented a certain number only by their position. Consequently, a place value system is used as a basis, which, however, is to be understood differently than our today’s decimal system.

“In medieval England, a simplified version of the abacus was used. It consisted of a board divided into squares representing the positions of the tiles. To calculate, coins, buttons, stones or other small objects were moved. The checkered tablecloth, from which the name exchequer comes, was originally a device for arithmetic like the divided table” (Microsoft ENCARTA Encyclopedia PLUS 99).

The famous German arithmetic master, Adam Riese, described the use of arithmetic boards in his work “Rechenbuch auff Linien und Ziphren in allerlei Handthierung / geschäfften und Kaufmanschafft”. His merit lies in particular in having popularized arithmetic in the decimal system commonly used today in German-speaking countries. It originated in the Arabic world and was perfected here. E.g. the digit “zero”, originated in the Indian area, was cleverly used for arithmetic. The Arabic origin was exactly the reason for the Catholic Church to dismiss it as pagan. Accordingly, the church at that time worked very much against the introduction of this form of arithmetic. However, especially the merchants of Europe quickly recognized the enormous advantage of this Arabic way of calculating, because until then they had been calculating in the Roman system. This was very cumbersome, even if one used an abacus or an abacus. Methodically, Adam Riese used a new type of abacus for his Arabic calculation. Perhaps the basis of all European abacus forms?

The abacus still allows complicated arithmetic operations today. Actually, it is still very simple in construction. It consists of a frame with balls or stones, called “beads”, which are threaded on rods or wires or guided in slots. It was used extensively in our country until the 16th century. Today it is only used in Asia, especially in China, rather in small stores. In addition to the four basic arithmetic operations, it is also possible, among other things, to draw roots with the help of an abacus. Addition and subtraction of large numbers are probably the absolute strengths of an abacus, even compared to a modern pocket calculator.

A definition of the term is important to me. An abacus is not a slide rule! With an abacus you calculate in a place value system. Today this is usually the decimal system (10s system). The mathematical basis of a slide rule is the calculation with logarithms.

De Blasio says elite school test SHSAT might be given online

While he signaled the survival of the SHSAT Friday
While he signaled the survival of the SHSAT Friday

The entrance test for the city’s elite specialized high schools might be given online due to the coronavirus, Mayor Bill de Blasio said Friday. SHSAT test online School practice  are hand crafted by SHSAT experts.

A caller to Brian Lehrer’s weekly WNYC spot with Hizzoner quizzed him asked about the fate of the exam this year.

“It will be administered,” he said, without offering any timetable. “The timing we’re working on.”

Given the ongoing coronavirus surge, de Blasio said kids are not likely to take the test at a desk in front of a proctor.

“Historically many of the standardized tests are in-person and that’s not a scenario we are likely to do, especially with what we’re talking about right now,” he said. “So we’re going to work out that time and we’re going to work out the methodology. We’ll have an announcement on that and certainly in the next few weeks.”

Parents have been demanding clarity on the administration of the test that determines admission to some of the nation’s top public high schools — including Brooklyn Tech, Stuyvesant, and Bronx Science.

Roughly 30,000 kids take the Specialized High School Admissions Test each year.

Mounting confusion heightened this week when the Department of Education abruptly canceled a series of information sessions on high school admissions a day after announcing them.

Those meetings were supposed to clarify admissions processes for all competitive high schools across the city — including the specialized campuses.

While he signaled the survival of the SHSAT Friday, de Blasio suggested that parents might have to extend their wait for specifics still further.

“We’ve got to first deal with this immediate challenge right now that we’re talking about,” he said. Use an shsat test online practice to help prepare for this exam. 

The SHSAT has become the subject of intense debate in recent years.

Opponents have called for its abolition and assert that it’s a narrow measure of student talent that gives the upper hand to kids with better preparatory resources.

Backers argue that it has helped to forge famed academic bastions that consistently feature heavy immigrant and low-income populations.

Dra levels

Dra levels is the best option for a thorough education for your child
Dra levels is the best option for a thorough education for your child

Teachers and parents struggling to slot children into grade reading levels need a common scale with defined criteria to ensure that they present the child with reading materials that are challenging and engaging enough to build skills. Educators have developed several scales to use for assessing children’s reading levels, and many children’s books have labels for ages or grade levels derived from these scales. Dra reading levels help your child develop vocabulary and speech.

Three assessment scales

The three most common assessment tools are the Lexile Measures, the DRA Levels (Development Reading Assessment) and the Guided Reading levels. Each of these tools varies in complexity and administration, but each will attempt to help educators and parents gain insight into a child’s reading skills. Below is an overview of each method.

A series of learning Styles: The kinesthetic learner will help teach the child correctly and competently.

Lexile Measures

Dra levels is the best option for a thorough education for your child
Dra levels is the best option for a thorough education for your child

MetaMetrics, Inc. created the Lexile Measures scale. The scale ranges from BR for beginning reader and then numerically up to 1600L, with the lower numbers corresponding lower levels of reading skill and comprehension. Higher levels represent the ability to comprehend difficult materials that require advanced reading skills. A student’s Lexile reader measure score results from their performance on a standardized reading test. Repeating the test at regular intervals can demonstrate how the student’s reading skills are evolving.

Metametrics assigns Lexile text measures to books and other reading materials to aid parents and educators in selecting materials that are within a reader’s skill range. The Lexile measure helps identify reading materials at the right level of difficulty for each individual, but it is not necessary to match a Lexile reading measure exactly to a Lexile text measure for any given reader. Reading material above a tested Lexile reader score helps to improve skills. Usually, readers are comfortable with material from 100L below their level to 50L above.

DRA Levels

A group of educators created the Developmental Reading Assessment in 1986. DRA assessments begin by having a student read something with a known level of difficulty. On completion of the reading assignment, the teacher asks several standardized questions to determine comprehension. Teachers should administer the test several times throughout the academic year to measure the growth of the child’s reading skills. Test scores include results in several different reading skills, such as fluency, phonemic awareness and alphabetic principles.

Many children’s books carry a DRA level, so it is easy to find books that a child can be comfortable reading. Offering a selection of books at a slightly higher skill level helps to build skills.

Here you will find more information about DRA Levels.

Guided Reading Levels

The Guided Reading Level Assessment criteria include several alphabetic levels for each grade. As in the other systems, tests assess a student’s reading skills and matches skills to reading materials. The student should progress through the levels as reading skills improve. Dra levels greatly improve the spoken language and help develop the mind.

Whether you choose to use any or all of these assessment tools, the ultimate goal is to help improve the student’s reading skills. To be effective, the three skills improvement plans all require similar steps:

  • Assess the student’s current skill level.
  • Provide reading material near or even slightly above tested levels.
  • Work on areas of identified weaknesses, and retest periodically throughout the year to assess improvement.

Dra reading levels

Dra reading levels

It is more Dra reading levels complicated than that: it is a non-state educational center at the Faculty of Philology of St. Petersburg State University. It is an institution with dual management through partnership with foreign universities. In other words, it is an independent educational center located between the two spaces of Russian state education and foreign private education.

So, getting back to the question of the correspondence between the diploma and the graduate’s situation on the labor market in France… Today, unlike the situation 30-40 years ago, the diploma does not grant any privileges on the labor market. In a situation of mass education, it only serves as a necessary and minimum condition of access to qualified employment: according to the level of the diploma, the graduate has access to a starting job. That is, for those who receive a bachelor’s degree, the set of available professional positions is much narrower than for the holder of a master’s degree. At least in the normative model of the labor market.

As for the doctoral diploma (the European equivalent of postgraduate studies), there is a somewhat different story, on the whole, close to Russia. Successful completion of doctoral studies is not directly related to bonuses in the labor market: in science departments, it is the first necessary step in a research or university career. Although doctoral studies in a for-profit school are seen as analogous to MBAs, if not formally as such. And as the value of the scientific doctorate in the current situation is getting lower and more and more students are getting degrees from the first two levels, there are reasons for the third educational level to become a kind of market accessory some time later.

Dra reading levels

In France in the last ten years there have been several scandalous cases of misuse of doctoral studies: the successful defense of a dissertation by a newspaper astrologer or a far-right politician. However, these cases are rare and fall at the center of professional and public scandal. It should be recognized that the credo of most university professors in France is professional integrity and republican concern for education, if only because they are much more massively and thoroughly involved in the management of universities than in Russia, and in their professional competition the criteria of intellectual competence play an essential role.

In Russia, the value of the PhD degree has also been devaluing rapidly over the last 15 years, admittedly much faster than in France. As a result of the deinstitutionalization of teachers’ personal involvement in the functioning of higher education institutions and the unscramble my word denial of responsibility for their results, the commercial overreaching of higher education qualifications is much more pronounced and dramatic. PhDs and doctorates are becoming a distinction that big politicians or wealthy market players, rather than academics, are beginning to look for in order to add another mark, a kind of optional but prestigious vignette on their business card.

Cogat test prep

Cogat test prep

The introduction of Cogat test prep inclusive education will indeed be useful, given the nature of violations among special children and their needs. The existence of mild and severe forms of impairment, combined impairments, should lead to the understanding that not all children with disabilities can attend a regular preschool. The manifestation of different forms of violations – behavior, well-being of a child, and the impact of the environment on this – can degrade the health status of both the child and other children and teachers. For example, if we talk about a child with attention deficit and a child with cerebral palsy, mental retardation and speech disorders, we should compare the type of assistance and correction and the need for the right specialists.

A mild form of impairment requires much less conditions for its correction than a severe form of impairment. If, in the first case, a small number of methods and stimulating materials are needed to diagnose and identify this disorder, a program consisting of corrective and developmental classes, a teacher, a psychologist, and a tutor will select methods to work with the child according to specialist recommendations. In the second case, there must be much more conditions and more work with the special child. Installation of special equipment (ramps and supports), which is not available in a regular kindergarten, availability of specialists (a teacher – psychologist, orthopedist, teacher – defectologist, LFK teacher), constant attention and control by a tutor (assistance in moving around, during hygienic activities – individual approach), when there are about twenty other children in the group. In remote places of residence there are no such specialists, additional rates are not provided in general educational pre-school institutions, and for the pre-school institution itself it is not reasonable to hire such a specialist, which will be needed for several years, and on the date of release of such a child from the pre-school institution there is no guarantee that in a sparsely populated place a child with a similar rare and severe disorder will enter the pre-school institution. It turns out that a child with disabilities will acquire knowledge and skills within the framework of general education standard in the same period of time as normally developing children only if the level of psychophysical development corresponds to or is cogat exam close to their age.

Cogat test prep

The caregiver to whom this child will enter may experience fear: whether he or she will cope, whether he or she will be able to help, whether he or she interacts with the child correctly. This fear will contribute to the teacher’s failure psychologically and morally – increased responsibility, uncertainty, non-acceptance. Ignorance of how the failure manifests itself, what can harm it, and failure to use special and recommended techniques and methods of working with a special child will primarily harm the child himself and create a tense environment around him.

Failure to accept a special child may result from a teacher’s incompetence – the educator does not know and cannot interact with this category of children. This is done by specially trained people who are specialized in particular violations (a teacher – speech therapist with speech disorders, a teacher – psychologist – escorting all categories of children, a teacher – defectologist can also work with such violations as mental retardation), who guide and advise teachers and the administration on special children. Whether a special child will be provided with the right specialist and whether the specialist will be professional and competent in his/her activities is difficult to control.

Kinesthetic learner characteristics

Kinesthetic learner characteristics

By the end of this decade, four out of every Kinesthetic learner characteristics professionals in the world will be from only two countries – China and India. Economic growth in Asian countries will also change the balance of higher education graduates. In the next eight years, China and India are expected to lead the way in training students.

Studies by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) show far-reaching changes in the balance of number of graduates, and growing Asian economies should bypass the United States and Western Europe.

Projections of the kind that the “global talent bank” will have in 2020 show that China will continue to increase the number of its graduates – up to 29% of the world’s 25-34 year olds. The U.S. will lose the most – decline to 11% – the country for the first time will take third place and will be after India.

The U.S. and European Union countries together are expected to have slightly more than a quarter of the world’s young graduates. Russia will also reduce its indicators – its share of graduates in the world will almost halve since the beginning of the century. Indonesia, according to forecasts of the OECD, will rise to fifth place (on the photo – students from Indonesia).

Kinesthetic learner characteristics

Is this the end of the empire? Higher education has gre vocabulary list become a mirror and a magnifying glass of economic activity. In the period after World War II, universities in the United States, Western Europe, Japan and Russia dominated. The USA, in particular, was a superstate for universities – in understanding their wealth, influence, and, until recently, the number of statistical indicators. Until 2000, the U.S. had a particle of young professionals relative to China. Japan also had many young specialists, as did India.

Today, China and India are the biggest players in the industry. The increase in the number of graduates reflects a change in the ambitions of these countries – now they want to compete with developed economies for high-income jobs. Instead of developing low-cost industries, they aim to attract high-tech jobs that the Western middle class had previously reserved for them.

Fivefold growth
As OECD data show, this is not only the case of countries such as China, whose economy is expanding while others are standing still. In all industrialized countries, the number of graduates is growing – just not as fast as in China, where their number has increased five times in a decade. OECD notes that by 2020, the number of young graduates from China will be approximately equal to the total population of the U.S. population aged 25 to 64 years. On this altered world map, we will see that Brazil will have more graduates than Germany, Turkey more than Spain, Indonesia three times more than France. In the UK, the opposite trend is observed, the country is projected to increase its particle size from 3% in 2010 to 4% in 2020. This drive to increase the number of graduates has clear economic goals, according to the OECD study.

Will there be enough jobs?
The transition from “mass production to the knowledge economy” means better employment and income – so there are “strong incentives” for countries to expand higher education. But will there be enough jobs for graduates with higher education? The OECD has tried to analyze the situation by looking at one side of the labor market: the number of jobs in science and technology. The number of such jobs has grown rapidly – and the report says that this is an example of how expanding higher education can create new types of employment.

These S&T jobs – for specialists and technicians – account for about every four out of 10 jobs in some Scandinavian and Nordic countries. By contrast, and this is an indicator of the older economy, these technological jobs represent only a small proportion of the workforce in China and India.

The OECD believes that there are significant economic benefits to investing in higher education – this creates new jobs for the more educated, while unskilled jobs disappear.

Homeschool singapore math

Homeschool singapore math

Structurally, distance learning Homeschool singapore math is not much different from any other learning system. It consists of content and organizational part. If we try to define distance learning, we will get approximately the following – it is a set of products and solutions of a software nature that combines with each other a significant part (if not all) of the processes that are associated with learning and automates their work.

For a competent organization of a system of distance learning, it will have to be aimed at automating actual tasks. In other words, it should be able to organize interaction between users, provide necessary training materials and generate reports.

Homeschool singapore math

The use of a system of distance learning should ensure the analysis of training and evaluation of its results, archiving of training materials, provision of software products and information content, verification of students’ knowledge and skills, as well as management of correspondence, full-time and e-learning.

It should be noted that each company or organization has its own requirements for distance learning and how its main objectives will be met. In order to understand more or less accurately what system is needed in this case, it is necessary to evaluate similar systems offered on the market. After performing such work, it is possible to move on to the stage of integration processes within the company under consideration.

Distance Learning System: its main parts
Distance learning as a system is usually divided into three main blocks, each of which has its own set of functions. These blocks include interaction between users of the system, development of training materials for its implementation and, of course, direct management of the training process.

But everything is in order. The block of interaction between participants in the training includes Wiki, audio, blogs, video, personal cabinet, messengers and specialized forums.

As for the block, aimed at the development of educational content, it is responsible for a large number of different tasks. For this purpose, tools such as multimedia courses, test tasks and tests are used. The quality of this block depends on what 7th grade workbooks software it uses.

Finally, the control unit. It is responsible for the automated preparation of training materials, recording of the performed activities, determination of the competence level, organization of the distance learning system, performance of the comparative analysis of training, technical support, formation of the results of the system’s work, as well as management of the established accounts.